An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures.
The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor responses. [PubChem]
Clonazepam is used as an anticonvulsant in the treatment of the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (petit mal variant), akinetic and myoclonic seizures. It can also be used for the treatment of panic disorders.
Clonazepam, a benzodiazepine, is used primarily as an anticonvulsant in the treatment of absence seizures, petit mal variant seizures (Lennox-Gastaut syndrome), akinetic and myoclonic seizures, and nocturnal myoclonus.
It enhances the activity of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. In animals, convulsions are antagonized occurs following administration of clonazepam. In humans, clonazepam suppresses the spike and wave discharge in absence seizures (petit mal) and decreases the frequency, amplitude, duration, and spread of discharge in minor motor seizures.
Allosteric interactions between central benzodiazepine receptors and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors potentiate the effects of GABA. As GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, this results in increased inhibition of the ascending reticular activating system. Benzodiazepines, in this way, block the cortical and limbic arousal that occurs following stimulation of the reticular pathways.
Metabolism: Hepatic (cytochrome P450, including CYP3A). Biotransformation occurs mainly by reduction of the 7-nitro group to the 4-amino derivative. This derivative can be acetylated, hydroxylated, and glucuronidated.
Absorption: Clonazepam is rapidly and completely absorbed after oral administration. The absolute bioavailability of clonazepam is about 90%. Cmax, oral administration = 1 -4 hours.
Route of elimination: Clonazepam is highly metabolized, with less than 2% unchanged clonazepam being excreted in the urine. Metabolites of Klonopin are excreted by the kidneys. Clonazepam also undergoes acetylation via NAT2.
Half life: 30-40 hours
All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.Some medical conditions may interact with Clonazepam.
Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions.
Common clonazepam side effects may include: feeling tired or depressed, drowsiness, dizziness, memory problems or problems with balance or coordination.
The most commonly reported adverse event when clonazepam is used for seizure disorders is CNS depression.
This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.