Salbutamol is a beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist used to treat asthma, bronchitis, COPD, as well as prevent exercise induced bronchospasms.
Salbutamol is generally used for acute episodes of bronchospasm caused by bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis and other chronic bronchopulmonary disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD).
Salbutamol is indicated for (i) the symptomatic relief and prevention of bronchospasm due to bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, reversible obstructive airway disease, and other chronic bronchopulmonary disorders in which bronchospasm is a complicating factor, and/or (ii) the acute prophylaxis against exercise-induced bronchospasm and other stimuli known to induce bronchospasm.
It is also used prophylactically for exercise-induced asthma.
Salbutamol (INN) or albuterol (USAN), a moderately selective beta(2)-receptor agonist similar in structure to terbutaline, is widely used as a bronchodilator to manage asthma and other chronic obstructive airway diseases.
After oral and parenteral administration, stimulation of the beta receptors in the body, both beta-1 and beta-2, occurs because (a) beta-2 selectivity is not absolute, and (b) higher concentrations of salbutamol occur in the regions of these receptors with these modes of administration.
Metabolic effects such as hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia also may occur, although it is not known whether these effects are mediated by beta-1 or beta-2 receptors. The serum potassium levels have a tendency to fall.
Salbutamol has been shown in most controlled clinical trials to have more effect on the respiratory tract, in the form of bronchial smooth muscle relaxation, than isoproterenol at comparable doses while producing fewer cardiovascular effects.
Controlled clinical studies and other clinical experience have shown that inhaled albuterol, like other beta-adrenergic agonist drugs, can produce a significant cardiovascular effect in some patients, as measured by pulse rate, blood pressure, symptoms, and/or electrocardiographic changes.
A measurable decrease in airway resistance is typically observed within 5 to 15 minutes after inhalation of salbutamol. The maximum improvement in pulmonary function usually occurs 60 to 90 minutes after salbutamol treatment, and significant bronchodilator activity has been observed to persist for 3 to 6 hours.
Metabolism: Salbutamol is not metabolized in the lung but is converted in the liver to the 4'-o-sulphate (salbutamol 4'-O-sulfate) ester, which has negligible pharmacologic activity. It may also be metabolized by oxidative deamination and/or conjugation with glucuronide. Salbutamol is ultimately excreted in the urine as free drug and as the metabolite.
Absorption: Following inhalation, salbutamol acts topically on bronchial smooth muscle and the drug is initially undetectable in the blood. After 2 to 3 hours low concentrations are seen, due presumably to the portion of the dose which is swallowed and absorbed in the gut.
Route of elimination: After oral administration, 58-78% of the dose is excreted in the urine in 24 hours, approximately 60% as metabolites. A small fraction is excreted in the feces.
Half life: The elimination half-life of inhaled or oral salbutamol has been recorded as being between 2.7 and 5 hours while the apparent terminal plasma half-life of albuterol has been documented as being approximately 4.6 hours.
All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects. Some medical conditions may interact with Salbutamol.
Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions.
Common side effects may include: seizures, angina, hypertension or hypotension, tachycardia with rates up to 200 beats/min, arrhythmias, nervousness, headache, tremor, muscle cramps, dry mouth, palpitation, nausea, dizziness, fatigue, malaise, insomnia, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis.
This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.